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Polyhexamethylene biguanide for treatment of external genital warts: a prospective, double-blind, randomized study
Abstract. – Genital human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Polyhexamethylene biguanide is a new agent, that has been demonstrated to have potent in vivo antiviral effects in animal and in human models
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) belong to a family of small (8-kb pairs) double-conate (CHG), a bis-biguanide (two bi-guanide groups), has been used as a safe, general vaginal disinfectant for over thirty years and has more recently been evaluated as a microbicidal agent effective against chlamydial infection. The PEG compound polyhexamethyl-ene biguanide (PHMB) is used as the broad-spectrum active ingredient in anti-bacterial contact lens solutions as a treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis, as a potential anti¬septic mouthrinse, as a topical wound disinfectant, and as an environmental biocide. PBGs such as PHMB have many characteristics that are consistent with the attributes of an ideal microbicide, including (1) ease of synthesis and preparation, (2) the absence of odor, and (3) chemical stability. The antibacterial activity of PHMB is attributed to interactions with cellular membrane components, specifically anionic phospholipids and perhaps proteins and lipopolysaccharides. To ability to interact with membranes suggests that PHMB may also be effective against HIV-1, since infection of cells susceptible to HIV-1 is mediated by components in both the cellular membrane and viral envelope. Indeed, PHMB was demonstrated to be effective in vitro against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) at concentrations as 0.01%.
The mechanism by which polyhexamethylene biguanide produces wart regression is probably dependent on the interactions with cellular membrane components, specifically anionic phospho-lipids and perhaps proteins and lipopoly-saccharides. Prior to polyhexamethylene biguanide, all topical treatments for external genital warts were either caustic, cytotoxic, or antimitotic. The efficacy of polyhexamethylene biguanide represents a positive indication of the importance in controlling these infections.
G. MARELLI, E. PAPALEO, M. ORIGONI, L. CAPUTO, A. FERRARI
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vita-Salute, University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute -Milan (Italy)
Basically everyone can have skin cancer. High-risk groups are those related to excessive sunlight for a long time. Like people in the region Asia, such as farmers ,sailors, porters etc. Or people with less melamine content in their skin such as America, Australia and UK who have a bright skin color. Or people who have an open air activities hobby. Bright eyes people have more risk of developing skin cancer than black skin people. Thus, we must be alert to the possibility of skin cancer in older age groups, especially when we are exposed to sun for a long time.
Few ways to prevent skin cancer:
- Avoid long time sunlight without sunscreen protection
- Avoid consume / using tobacco
- Wearing a long hand cloth or hat when going outside (if prolonged exposure to sunlight and stinging)
Vantocil TG is a broad spectrum, fast acting bactericide for the use in wet wipes lotion formulations. There are 2 main functions of Vantocil TG:
- As an effective preservative
- As an effective anti-bacterial agent
Vantocil TG is a 20% aqueous solution of poly (hexamethylenebiguanide) hydrochloride, also known as PHMB. Vantocil TG is widely used in adult and baby wipes.
The summary are:
Vantocil TG provides the following properties of direct relevance in wet wipes applications:
- Extensive toxicity studies suggest acceptable use risk of human (low acute toxicity via oral or dermal routes)
- Fast acting, broad spectrum bacteride, effective at low concentration against gram positive, gran negative, virus and yeasts
- Formaldehyde releaser-free
- Halogen free
- Water soluble, color less and odorless
- Non specific mode of action with no known evidence of development of organism resistance
- Effective and stable over a pH range of 1-11
What is Nosocomial infection ?
Nosocomial infection is an infection obtained / experienced by the patient during her hospitalization and infection was not found / suffered at the time when they’re enter the hospital.
3 Factor/ interaction matter
- Microorganism inside the hospital environment
- Patient condition is weak
- Chain of infection inside hospital
Ways to prevents nosocomial
- Sterilization technique and disinfection seriously considered
- Anti biotic usage must be comply with the indication
- If necessary, avoid invasive procedure
- Minimize the use of immunosuppressive drugs
- Utilization isolation room
- Complete the hospital with specialize personnel who handle nosocomial infection, example: Infection control committee
Comparison of Traditional and Disposable Bed Baths in Critically Ill Patients
• Background For bedridden patients unable to perform personal hygiene measures because of acute illness or chronic debilitation, the bed bath, with either the traditional basin or, more recently, disposable baths, has long been a measure for improving hygiene and comfort.
• Conclusion The disposable bath is a desirable form of bathing for patients who are unable to bathe themselves in critical care and long-term care settings, and it may even be preferable to the traditional basin bath.
Table 4 Mean cost/bath of traditional and disposable bathing procedures
|Item||Traditional bath *||Disposable bath|
|Basin and bar soap||0.5||0|
|ointment and antibacterial spray||1.82||0.68|
|Laundry (mean 3.98 washclothes and 1 towel per bath)||0.27||0|
|Mean seconds per bath x mean salary and fringe benefits per second||17.28||15.36|
*Not included in the cost calculation are costs for water used (2-4 gallons [7.6-15.2L] per bath) and replacement costs for washcloths (replaced after 1.5 uses, on average) (source: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, May 27,2011)
Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease - Coxsackie Virus Attacking Children
Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a disease caused by a virus that usually attacks infants and children. The disease is caused by the Coxsackie virus. The main symptoms are spots around and inside the mouth, also the hands and feet. HFMD quite easily contagious and spreads through direct contact with secretions from their spots, sneezing, coughing and saliva of patients.
The disease is caused by food equipment, toys and towels that can be contaminated with the virus.
How to avoid this disease is to maintain a healthy environment and individuals, such as by washing hands and avoiding goods – items contaminated with the virus.
Society does not need to panic deal with this virus, but need to be alert. (source: kompas)
DoCare wash disposable gloves can be used to help prevent transmission of contaminated towels